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REDUCE has been developed by Anthony C. Hearn starting in 1963. The initial application area of REDUCE was symbolic computation in high energy physics. From the very beginning REDUCE was implemented in Lisp. In 1966, Hearn published a first description of Standard Lisp.

First overviews over early versions have been published in 1966 and 1967. In 1968, there was a first distribution to various researchers around the world with a "REDUCE User's Manual".

In 1970 Reduce 2 was released, which introduced RLISP.

REDUCE 3 came out in 1983. At that point REDUCE was no longer the work of a single person. Dozens of people had meanwhile contributed to the development of the system. In 2004, Reduce 3.8 was released, which was the last commercial release.

On December 18, 2008, Reduce has gone open source on Sourceforge.


  • A. C. Hearn. Standard Lisp. SIGPLAN Notices, 4(9), 1966.
  • A. C. Hearn. Computation of algebraic properties od elementary particle reactions using a digital computer. Communications of the ACM, 9:573–577, 1966
  • A. C. Hearn. Reduce—a user-oriented system for algebraic simplification. ACM SIGSAM Bulletin, 1(6):50–51, May 1967
  • A. C. Hearn. REDUCE User's Manual," Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Report No. ITP- 292, 1967, rev. 1968.
  • A. C. Hearn. REDUCE 2 user's manual, Artificial Intelligence Memo AIM-133, Stanford University, October 1970.
  • A. C. Hearn. REDUCE 2, A System and Language for Algebraic Manipulation," Proc. of Second Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation, International Hotel, Los Angeles, March 23-25, 1971.